Canine Parvo Virus (CPV): what is it and how can it be treated?

I have had several requests for information regarding parvovirus. Most of my knowledge of it was out of date as I have not worked in veterinary medicine in over ten years. I found the links below to be informative.

If you suspect that your dog or puppy may have parvovirus, I urge you to seek veterinary care immediately. Do not delay receiving a proper diagnosis. You may have gathered that we waiting a day prior to seeking medical attention. To begin with, we live very rural and after hours emergency care is not an option. Further, I was able to rely upon my experience and knowledge to give our puppy supportive therapy until she could be seen by a qualified veterinarian.

The following is from http://nd.essortment.com/symptomscanine_rhnu.htm.

Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a serious and highly contagious disease that is a major killer of puppies as well as unprotected older dogs.

Canine parvovirus (CPV) is the most dangerous and contagious virus that affects unprotected dogs. When it was first discovered in 1978, most of the puppies under five months old and 2% to 3% of older dogs died from CPV. But subsequently a parvo vaccine has helped control its spread, and CPV infection is now considered most threatening to puppies between the time of weaning and six months of age. Adult dogs can also contract the virus, although it's relatively uncommon. All breeds of dog can be infected, but Rottweilers and Doberman Pinschers are more susceptible and have less chance of recovering.

CPV affects only dogs, and cannot be transmitted to humans or other species. However, other animals and humans can carry it to dogs. Dogs who become infected have a 50-50 chance of survival. If they survive the first four days, they will usually recover rapidly, and become immune to the virus for life. Most puppies will die without medical treatment.

The source of CPV infection is fecal waste from infected dogs. It has been diagnosed anywhere groups of dogs are found: dog shows, obedience trials, breeding and boarding kennels, pet shops, animal shelters, parks, and playgrounds. Dogs that spend their time confined to a house or yard and are not in contact with other dogs have much less chance of exposure to CPV. It's easily transmitted via the hair or feet of infected dogs, and also by contaminated objects such as cages or shoes. CPV is hardy and can remain in feces-contaminated ground for five months or more if conditions are favorable. Although most disinfectants cannot kill it, chlorine bleach is quite effective. There may be other means of transmission of CPV, but they are not known at this time.

Two forms of CPV have been identified: diarrhea syndrome and cardiac syndrome. Diarrhea syndrome, or enteritis, has an incubation period of five to fourteen days. Dogs with enteritis act like they are in extreme pain. Early symptoms are depression, loss of appetite, vomiting, high fever, and severe diarrhea. Feces can be either grayish or fluid and bloody. Rapid dehydration is a danger, and dogs may continue to vomit and have diarrhea until they die, usually three days after onset of symptoms. Others may recover without complications and have no long-term problems. Puppies can die suddenly of shock as early as two days into the illness.

The second form of CPV is cardiac syndrome, or myocarditis, which can affect puppies under three months old. There is no diarrhea because the virus multiplies rapidly in muscle cells of the immature heart. Puppies may stop suckling and then collapse and die within minutes or days. No effective treatment is available for cardiac syndrome, and surviving puppies may have permanently damaged hearts.

The initial diagnosis of CPV can usually be made by a veterinarian after observing the dog’s symptoms; however, vomiting and diarrhea can be caused by a number of diseases. The rapid spread of illness in a group of dogs is another indication that CPV may be the culprit. A more definitive diagnosis of CPV can be made by testing feces for the virus, either at the veterinarian's office or through an outside laboratory.

Treatment for CPV should be started immediately. Hospitalization is necessary, except in relatively mild cases. Dogs must be kept warm. Dehydration is treated by replacing electrolytes and fluids and controlling vomiting and diarrhea. Antibiotics are used to prevent secondary infections. No drug is yet available that will kill the virus.

The easiest way to prevent CPV in adult dogs has been through annual vaccinations, although increasingly, veterinarians are recommending that vaccinations be administered every three years. Puppies need a series of booster shots, because of uncertainty about when maternal immunity wanes and the time the vaccine can provide puppies with their own immunity. This may be as early as six weeks of age or as late as fourteen weeks of age. If there is still a high level of maternal antibody present in the puppy, it will interfere with a vaccination. Veterinarians recommend that puppies get boosters every three weeks until they are sixteen weeks old, and they should be kept separate from unvaccinated dogs. Vaccinations given to puppies as well as adults also protect against other serious canine diseases like distemper, infectious hepatitis, leptospirosis, parainfluenza, and coronavirus.

Parvo vaccinations are usually required for participation in puppy obedience classes and for boarding your dog at kennels. A vaccination does not guarantee that your puppy will be safe from the virus, but it's good protective insurance.

A parvo-infected dog can shed the virus in his feces, which makes him extremely contagious to other dogs. The following precautions will help prevent the spread of this disease.

· Keep the dog isolated from all other dogs for at least a month after recovery.

· Pick up all the dog's stools in your yard.

· Use chlorine bleach and water to clean food and water bowls. Wash the dog's bedding in bleach and hot water. Disinfect all areas that the dog has been in, including linoleum floors, crates, etc.

· If you have any other dogs who are two years old or younger, or who have not had parvo vaccinations, take them to your veterinarian immediately for a booster shot.

· Feed your dog a bland diet until he recovers. Reintroduce regular food slowly.

A healthy puppy or adult dog should never be allowed contact with the feces of other dogs when walking or playing in public. Dispose of waste material properly and try to keep lawns, sidewalks, and street gutters clear of feces from neighborhood dogs.

Treatment
Treatment for canine parvovirus is supportive and the goals are to relieve symptoms and prevent complications. Because the disease progresses so quickly, it is important to begin treatment as soon as possible.


In most cases, hospitalization is required. Treatment usually involves intravenous (IV) fluids, anti-nausea medications, and antibiotics to prevent secondary infections. Infected dogs should be kept warm and away from other dogs and activity should be restricted.

Treatment for CPV is not always successful, even when it is started promptly. In dogs that recover from infection, improvement may be seen in 2 or 3 days.

Prognosis

Puppies that are infected with CPV have a guarded prognosis (expected outcome). For dogs that receive prompt medical treatment and survive acute infection, the prognosis usually is good. Severe infection often has a poor outcome. Mortality is high in cardiac CPV and is about 10% in the more common, intestinal CPV. Following CPV infection, dogs may be contagious for up to 2 months.

For those who would say "I can't afford treatment, so I'll take my dog home."

There are a few holistic web sites that offer tips. I suggest Healing Parvo Puppies - Home or Vet Treatment or (http://wolfcreekranch1.tripod.com/heal_parvo.html#VO)

I would strongly urge you to not take your dog or puppy "home to die" without thinking of his or her comfort. The actual death itself, unsupported by medications to relieve pain or chronic suffering, is horrorific to watch.


A final note to breeders and "do it yourself-ers": all vaccines MUST be kept cool. Follow the directions on the package to determine the correct storage methods, including proper refrigeration temperatures. Do now allow the loaded syringes or the phial itself to sit out on a counter while you slowly work your way through a litter of puppies.

This information is only provided as a jumping off place for your own fact finding.


Followup 19 May 2009: I had an image featured above that was originally sent to me in pamphlet form via a friend in the veterinary field. I am pleased to say that the image it is actually the work of Jean-Yves Sgro. It originally from this scientist's website at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and derived from PDB Xray data by others (PDB ID 4DPV). The original and highly detailed image can be found at: http://www.virology.wisc.edu/virusworld/images/cpvweb.jpg. Please see the comments section for more information.

The image is copyright protected (and not public domain, as was erroneously implied in the pamphlet) thus I have removed it. If you would like to see the face of parvovirus, please stop by here. My apologies to Sgro. Delaney, you might want to double-check the pamphlet's sources.

11 responded with...:

Anonymous said...

I bought a Spitz pup y'day. * weeks old but not imunized nor wormed. She seemed inactive lethargic and no apetite. On taking her to the vet she was diagnosed with Parvo.

Today is teh second day of treatment and she,s begun passing bloody watery smelly stools.

I'm so upset, to see her suffering. And I'm so angry at the breeder for overlooking her immunization schedule. She's anemic as well....her gums are pale and bone white.

Devi from Sri Lanka

Autrice DelDrago said...

Devi, I'm so sorry to hear about your pup becoming ill from parvo. I wish breeders would take responsibility instead of putting us through this nightmare. It would only be $16 to begin puppy vaccines (stored the proper way) but instead, they pass off a sick pup and pray that we do something.

You're in my thoughts and prayers.

sjgibson1231@yahoo.com said...

Thank you so much for posting this, I was looking through trying to find some information and stumbled upon this that gave myself and my husband some hope. We just bought our second boston terrier (a playmate for our first) And she was unvaccinated, and diagnosed with Parvo. This is now her 3rd day of treatment and vomiting seems to be (at least) slowing down, and her stool is becoming firm. Im sincerly hoping these are good signs, how do you know when the virus is passing?

Cheri said...

We got brother and sister german shepards 8 months ago. The female got cardio parvo at two months even with the parvo shots. Our male Jake did not through careful isolation. She survived and seemed to be thriving until yesterday playing ball with my boys. She collasped and died withing minutes from cardic arrest. The cardio parvo permanently damages the heart we were told by her vet. It is a heart-breaker for all. We were also told shepard have a very immature immune system until about 5 years old. Has anyone eles heard this?? Also that they need parvo shots every two months in the first year???

Autrice DelDrago: said...

Hi Cheri,

I'm so sorry to hear about your girl. Cardiac problems are a frequent concern with parvo pups.

My mother had a mixed breed who contracted parvo in the 1970s when it first reared its ugly head. She developed epilepsy and heart problems. She also lived to a ripe old age of 18 before her congestive heart failure too its toll.

Heart is a major concern and your vet can help monitor that for Jake if you have doubts or worry.

Yes, I've heard shepherds have a slow-to-grow immune system. You can boost their immunity much like you would boost a human's - diet, exposure, vaccinations and maintaining health.

Our vet had Truffle come in for her normal 6 month vaccine and yearly after that. Each dog is different depending on their natural immunity.

You're already a step ahead in the game: you've taken an active interest in Jake's health, you are working with a vet who seems proactive in his treatment, and you are seeking questions outside the box.

I'm so sorry for the loss of your girl. Nothing is as heartbreaking as losing a loved one. All the CPR in the world won't help a dog unless you have medical care right on hand. You can take consolation in that she was carefree and doing something wonderful - playing with your sons. The imprint she took with her was of their joyful voices as they bonded with their newest family member.

Autrice DelDrago: said...

The pain felt when we lose a pet loss is very real - we are losing family. At times, the memory of that death can haunt us. We ask ourselves, "what if I had done this... what if I had asked this question... what if I hadn't yelled at my special little guy the day before..."

"What if" yourself to death but place no blame upon your shoulders if none is truly there to be placed.

I've had several requests so I am putting this information here and on other entries.

Just this side of heaven is a place called Rainbow Bridge.

When an animal dies that has been especially close to someone here, that pet goes to Rainbow Bridge.
There are meadows and hills for all of our special friends so they can run and play together.
There is plenty of food, water and sunshine, and our friends are warm and comfortable.

All the animals who had been ill and old are restored to health and vigor; those who were hurt or maimed are made whole and strong again, just as we remember them in our dreams of days and times gone by.
The animals are happy and content, except for one small thing; they each miss someone very special to them, who had to be left behind.

They all run and play together, but the day comes when one suddenly stops and looks into the distance. His bright eyes are intent; His eager body quivers. Suddenly he begins to run from the group, flying over the green grass, his legs carrying him faster and faster.

You have been spotted, and when you and your special friend finally meet, you cling together in joyous reunion, never to be parted again. The happy kisses rain upon your face; your hands again caress the beloved head, and you look once more into the trusting eyes of your pet, so long gone from your life but never absent from your heart.

Then you cross Rainbow Bridge together....

Author unknown...

Please visit http://petloss.com/ for information. Celebrate the joy your pet brought you, and the comfort and love that you gave to them. There is NO shame in shedding tears for an animal. They are kindred souls to us.

Jean-Yves SGRO said...

Note: the image featured here is form my web site at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and derived from PDB Xray data by others (PDB ID 4DPV).

The original image can be found at:
http://www.virology.wisc.edu/virusworld/images/cpvweb.jpg

Jean-Yves Sgro, Senior Scientist - Author of the image. University of Wisconsin-Madison
jsgro@wisc.edu

Gina Caplan said...

Dr. Jack Broadhurst has developed a treatment for Parvo that includes the drug Tamiflu. The article he has written on it (www.dalmatianrescue.org/info/parvo.pdf) is clearly for other professionals, but you can read the information and take it to your vet, if necessary.

Cardio Parvo: All eight puppies in one litter were diagnosed with Cardio Parvo. They were successfully treated with steriods. For the whole story, go to http://dogcheapsleeps.com/pet-emergencies/cardio-parvo/.

Unknown said...

Brothers and sisters, I want to quickly tell all here how my dog was cured of his Anemia Due to Iron Deficiency. Rhod Minster is my name, and I live in USA. My dog was diagnosed of Anemia Due to Iron Deficiency months ago, and my dog begins go slimmer by the day. His doctor said this disease have no cure, my dog is going to die. So I was already crying waiting for that faithful day my dog will finally die. But after some time, my friend came visiting and saw how slim my dog was so she asked what was wrong with my dog, and I told her but she said to me that a doctor who is a specialist in dogs uses herbal process to cure her own dog of lyme disease , and also another was cured of parvovirus and that since then her dog was cured, her dog have been doing very fine. So she gave me the contact details of her dog, and I contacted the said doctor his name is Doctor Uwadia Amenifo. I explained to him what my dog is passing through and promised to help me save my dog, so we made necessary arrangements and he prepared the herbal medicine, and sent it to me in USA. So I was giving the medicine to my dog just as he directed and behold my dog so responded positively to his medicine, and today my dog is totally cured of his long suffered Anemia Due to Iron Deficiency. So I decide to come here and tell all whose dog has a one deadly disease or the other to quickly contact Doctor Uwadia Amenifo. His email is (doctoruwadiaamenifo@gmail.com), phone number (+2349052015874).

Unknown said...

Brothers and sisters, I want to quickly tell all here how my dog was cured of his Anemia Due to Iron Deficiency. Rhod Minster is my name, and I live in USA. My dog was diagnosed of Anemia Due to Iron Deficiency months ago, and my dog begins go slimmer by the day. His doctor said this disease have no cure, my dog is going to die. So I was already crying waiting for that faithful day my dog will finally die. But after some time, my friend came visiting and saw how slim my dog was so she asked what was wrong with my dog, and I told her but she said to me that a doctor who is a specialist in dogs uses herbal process to cure her own dog of lyme disease , and also another was cured of parvovirus and that since then her dog was cured, her dog have been doing very fine. So she gave me the contact details of her dog, and I contacted the said doctor his name is Doctor Uwadia Amenifo. I explained to him what my dog is passing through and promised to help me save my dog, so we made necessary arrangements and he prepared the herbal medicine, and sent it to me in USA. So I was giving the medicine to my dog just as he directed and behold my dog so responded positively to his medicine, and today my dog is totally cured of his long suffered Anemia Due to Iron Deficiency. So I decide to come here and tell all whose dog has a one deadly disease or the other to quickly contact Doctor Uwadia Amenifo. His email is (doctoruwadiaamenifo@gmail.com), phone number (+2349052015874).

Unknown said...

Brothers and sisters, I want to quickly tell all here how my dog was cured of his Anemia Due to Iron Deficiency. Rhod Minster is my name, and I live in USA. My dog was diagnosed of Anemia Due to Iron Deficiency months ago, and my dog begins go slimmer by the day. His doctor said this disease have no cure, my dog is going to die. So I was already crying waiting for that faithful day my dog will finally die. But after some time, my friend came visiting and saw how slim my dog was so she asked what was wrong with my dog, and I told her but she said to me that a doctor who is a specialist in dogs uses herbal process to cure her own dog of lyme disease, and also another was cured of parvovirus and that since then her dog was cured, her dog have been doing very fine. So she gave me the contact details of her dog, and I contacted the said doctor his name is Doctor Uwadia Amenifo. I explained to him what my dog is passing through and promised to help me save my dog, so we made necessary arrangements and he prepared the herbal medicine, and sent it to me in USA. So I was giving the medicine to my dog just as he directed and behold my dog so responded positively to his medicine, and today my dog is totally cured of his long suffered Anemia Due to Iron Deficiency. So I decide to come here and tell all whose dog has a one deadly disease or the other to quickly contact Doctor Uwadia Amenifo. His email is (doctoruwadiaamenifo@gmail.com), phone number (+2349052015874).